Research papers n research papers
(And, in a nice cross-fertilization within the top-100, Clustal’s algorithms use the same strategy. H. Twelve papers on the top-100 list relate to it, including 2 of the top 10. We are driven to discover. Kohn realized that he could calculate a system’s properties, such as its lowest energy state, by assuming that each electron reacts to all the others not as individuals, but as a smeared-out average. The exercise revealed some surprises, not least that it takes a staggering 12,119 citations to rank in the top 100 — and that many of the world’s most famous papers do not make the cut. As research paper on salem witch trials Efron observes: research papers n research papers “The story is one of the computer slowly, then not so slowly, making its influence felt on statistical theory as well as on practice. At IBM Research, we invent things that matter to the world. DFT reduces the data requirement to just a few hundred kilobytes, well within the capacity of a standard laptop. college admission essay online mission trip In principle, the mathematics are straightforward: the system behaves like a continuous fluid with a density that varies from point to point. Jensen & W. 27, 379–423; 1948). Today, we are pioneering the most promising and disruptive technologies that will transform industries and society, including the future of AI, blockchain and quantum computing. Nor is research papers n research papers Thomson Reuters’ list the only ranking system available. Shannon Bell Syst. BIS research is perhaps best known for its perspective that places emphasis on the links between the real economy and the financial system, on global rather than country-specific aspects and on longer-term drivers of activity rather than current conditions. Although the top-100 list has a rich seam of papers on statistics, says Stephen Stigler, a statistician at the University of Chicago in Illinois and an expert on the history of the field, “these papers are not at all those that have been most important to us statisticians”. ) Research at the BIS supports central banks in their pursuit of monetary and financial stability by providing in-depth economic analysis. Simplicity and ease of use also boosted the popularity of papers in this field. The technique made it possible to devise trees from large data sets without eating up computer resources. Google Scholar credits that with 69,273 citations, while the Web of Science gives it 10,239 citations — so just misses out on the top 100. British statisticians Martin Bland and Douglas Altman made the list (number 29) with a technique 17 — now known as the Bland–Altman plot — for visualizing how well two measurement methods agree. But the vast majority describe experimental methods research papers n research papers or software that have become essential in their fields. 3, 305–360; 1976) — received 45,119 citations in Google’s list, but just 8,372 in Web of Science. A few that do, such as the first observation 1 of carbon nanotubes (number 36) are indeed classic discoveries. Econ. But at number 59, Israeli statisticians Yoav Benjamini and Yosef Hochberg’s 1995 paper 19 on controlling the false-discovery rate is ideally suited for data coming how to write a high school application essay introduction from fields such as genomics or neuroscience imaging, in which comparisons number in the hundreds of thousands — a scale that Duncan could hardly have imagined. ” The Kaplan–Meier paper was a sleeper hit, receiving almost no citations until computing power boomed in the 1970s, making the methods accessible to non-specialists. In that list, available at Google Scholar Top 100. Highest of the Google Scholar new entrants, at number 4 in the list, is Claude Shannon’s 1948 paper that birthed modern information theory ( C. The teams behind BLAST and Clustal are competitive about the ranking of their papers. J . It is a friendly sort of competition, however, says Des Higgins, a biologist at University College Dublin, and a member of the Clustal team. Most of this software is built on density functional theory (DFT), easily the most heavily cited concept in the physical sciences. Number 63 describes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 6, a method for copying segments of DNA that earned US biochemist Kary best title for thesis writing Mullis the prize in 1993. Rather, they are the ones that have proved to be most useful to the vastly larger population of practising scientists. Theoretical physicist Walter Kohn led the development of DFT half a century ago in papers 20, 21 that now rank as numbers 34 and 39. (Google gives most documents a higher number of citations than Web of Science, but a 5-fold difference is unusual). By helping scientists to explore and manipulate DNA, both methods have helped to drive a revolution in genetic research that continues to this day. The oldest and youngest papers in the statistics group deal with the same problem — multiple comparisons of data — but from very different scientific milieux. US statistician David Duncan’s 1955 paper 18 (number 64) is useful when a few groups need to be compared. “BLAST was a game-changer, and they’ve earned every citation that they get. Tech. Google Scholar compiled its own top-100 list for Nature (see ‘An alternative ranking’). Number 21, for example — a 1976 article on managerial behaviour in firms ( M. Number 20 on the list is a paper 12 that introduced the “neighbor-joining” method, research papers n research papers a fast, efficient way of research papers n research papers placing a research papers n research papers large number of organisms into a phylogenetic tree according to some measure of evolutionary distance between them, such as genetic variation. Xls, economics papers have more prominence. But among the science papers, many of the same titles show up. With more than 3,000 researchers in 12 labs located across six continents, IBM Research is one of the world’s largest and most influential corporate research labs. Hence the theory’s name. The Purdue Writing Lab serves the Purdue, West Lafayette, campus and coordinates with local literacy initiatives. To study electronic behaviour in a silicon crystal by taking account of how every electron and every nucleus interacts with every other electron and nucleus, a researcher would need to analyse one sextillion (10 21) terabytes of data, he says — far beyond the capacity of any conceivable computer. Google Scholar’s list also features books, which Thomson Reuters did not analyse. E. Noticeably, however, just over one-third of the list is different, with economics and psychology articles making considerable inroads, perhaps because they gain more citations from how to write a memoir essay books than do other fields. ” Phylogenetics At least two of the biological techniques described by top-100 papers have resulted in Nobel prizes. It links related organisms together one pair at a time until a tree is resolved. Xls) throws up many similar papers to the Web of Science ranking. The Purdue OWL offers global support through online reference materials and services. Meckling J. C. It is based on many more citations because the search engine culls references from a much greater (although poorly characterized) literature base, including from a large range of books. Number 4 on the list describes the DNA-sequencing method 5 that earned the late Frederick Sanger his share of the 1980 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. At its heart, DFT is an approximation that makes impossible mathematics easy, says Feliciano Giustino, a materials physicist at the University of Oxford, UK. The Purdue University Writing research papers n research papers Lab and Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) assist clients in their development as writers—no matter what their skill level—with on-campus consultations, online participation, and community engagement. Physical anthropologist Naruya help with writing a dissertation to start Saitou helped to devise the technique when he joined Masatoshi Nei’s lab at the University of Texas in Houston in the 1980s to work on human evolution and molecular genetics, two fields that were starting to burst at the seams with information. A separate Google Scholar top 100 showing only the top-cited research articles ( Google Scholar Top 100 articles only. “We physical anthropologists were facing kind of the big data of that time,” says Saitou, now at Japan’s National Institute of Genetics in Mishima. The same idea had been introduced by another statistician 14 years earlier, but Bland and Altman presented it in an accessible way that has won citations ever since. Financ.