Research paper on racial profiling
Companies rarely disclose details about their theft-prevention efforts and scant data exists on the frequency of in-store enforcement actions. Arab, Asians and Anglo Australians are examined across stereotypes and dimensions of competence and warmth. Therefore, one might expect officers’ intentions to research paper on racial profiling be poorly formed, leading to a stronger direct relationship between attitudes and behavior. This study concluded, however, that because no information was collected on law-violating behavior, the differences reported could not be attributed how to write a profile essay to racial profiling. “Teaming is a natural and vital part of human social and work life” (Linda, 2005). 3% of blacks versus 10. Rather, several specific theories are identified for each dependent variable as a way to illustrate the use of theories in this line of research. At the counter, Moaning pre-paid for a shirt that she wanted bruno de man phd thesis to select from the rack. It was co-founded by Greg Kafoury, a civil rights worker in the 1960s, whose resume of causes includes championing Ralph Nader and anti-nuclear policies and fighting against police brutality, race discrimination and false arrests. Effective leadership is all about providing clear vision for its employees and associated guidelines in which employees are expected to operate. The second dependent variable is the behavior of different police departments and would research paper on racial profiling address questions such as these: Do some police departments hero in of mice and men have high rates of racial profiling and others have low rates? Research on this dependent variable would address questions such as these: Why do police officers in general stop more black citizens than white citizens? ” With the 2013 holiday bustle looming, Michael Hardy, general counsel of the Al Sharpton-led National Action Network, recalls Barneys CEO Mark Lee promising him to convene a meeting of CEOs of national brands to talk about this issue. Key to improved performance is empowerment of team members along with clear communication channels to provide directives clearly and cogently. The volatile political environment that surrounds the issue of “racial profiling” has led local and state police agencies across the nation to start collecting information about traffic and pedestrian stops. Calnon, M. 13). Although Lanza-Kaduce and Greenleaf (1994) argued that Turk’s theory of norm resistance could be used to explain conflict during police-citizen encounters, Turk’s theory is largely structural. This article reviews recently published studies on racial profiling and critiques both their methods and conclusions. 4% of whites” (Langan et al. Finally, we argue for the absolute need for future research to use theory to guide data collection efforts and interpretations of the empirical findings, as well as to inform policy decisions. Nevertheless, differences in aggregate rates were also found for police stops, citations, arrests, searches, and the use of force; for each of these outcomes, the rates for blacks and Hispanics were research paper on racial profiling higher than those for whites. It was also established that competence and warmth are inversely related and increase in one attribute leads to decrease in the other dimension. Her research interests include patrol officers’ decision making, the role of race in the criminal justice system, and intimate partner violence. Security footage that Kafoury’s firm obtained shows cameras specifically trained on Brenda Moaning, an African-American woman, as she shopped, paid and exited H&M. She recently completed thesis research that examines the help-seeking behavior of victims of domestic violence. The study across a population of 223 Anglo Australian individuals established a clear bias against Asians and Arabs on both the dimensions of competence and warmth. The controversy over this issue phd thesis on plant tissue culture is overwhelmed by the unsupported assumption that all racebased decision making by police officers is motivated by individual police officers’ racial prejudice. Langan and his colleagues did not test or speculate about the potential reasons for these reported differences. Kafoury says that while the shoplifting cases he takes on have a racial component, he tends to win claims based on false arrest, rather than on race discrimination — as in a case he won against an H&M store last year. , sociology, conflict, social psychology, interactionist perspectives, and organization and management perspectives) and apply their theoretical constructs to explain the three dependent variables just identified: (1) individual police officers’ behavior, (2) behavior of police departments, and (3) aggregate rates of behavior. An effective team has diversity which helps in tapping the individual prowess and utilizing it synergistically to produce an output more than sum of its constituent parts. As a result, few policy implications can be derived from their initial report. Is proximity to 1-95, for example, or a southern location, associated with greater disproportionality in racial stops? Why do some officers exhibit more racial disproportionality while others exhibit less? A. Applying this theory to the police, one could argue that many of the situations officers handle are stressful and require immediate decision making (Bittner, 1970). ” “Obviously there’s a financial incentive for the retail shop to stop people and get this money,” says attorney Douglas Wigdor, founding partner of the New York employment law firm Wigdor LLP, which is representing the store detectives who are suing CVS. Incidents of customers who were stopped after making pricey purchases at Macy’s and Barneys became practically synonymous with a low moment in retail race relations -- dubbed “shop and frisk. In the case of research on racial profiling, the first dependent variable is the behavior of individual police officers. *** Jennifer M. “We want to emphasize to our industry that this is a really important subject and we need to address it together,” says Jim Sluzewski, the senior vice president for corporate communications and external affairs at Macy’s, “because if a customer feels uncomfortable in one store they are going to research paper on racial profiling feel uncomfortable, probably, in multiple stores. Using the conceptual framework for police research presented by Bernard and Engel, it reviews a number of theories that may explain racial disparities in the rates of police stops. A national survey administered by the Bureau of research paper on racial profiling Justice Statistics as a supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey reported that “black drivers were more likely than white drivers to be stopped at least once in 1999: 12. Each of these perspectives highlights different explanations of the phenomenon, and, as a result, each has different policy implications. Surveys conducted research paper on portfolio management services along attributes of intelligence, education and likeability clustered around these two dimensions of warmth and competence for almost all representative social groups. ’ On the last call, she found a firm willing to speak with her: Kafoury & McDougal. This theory, in part, explains the conflict between subjects and authorities in society as being due to dissimilarities in their cultural norms and characteristics and can be used to explain racial profiling at the aggregate level. The theories we review are not meant as an exhaustive list of those that could be used to explain the behavior in question. Stereotyping is an automatic response and is present even though the subject denies it consciously according to John Divido. The firm also represented TV star Rob Brown, of HBO’s "Treme," after he was handcuffed and detained at Macy’s following his purchase of a $1,300 watch for his mother in June 2013. In court papers, Brown said three phd thesis on internet marketing unidentified men, believed to be New York City police department officers, accused him of using a fraudulent credit card to buy the watch and mocked him while he was kept in a holding cell in the store. But Johnson’s detention at the Asheville Mall two and a half years ago is all too familiar to shoppers of color across the country. Employees have to be charged with “passion”, an excitement, contagious enthusiasm and ownership about their work to produce results that are truly remarkable and unmatchable. Appropriate training and support from senior management can help build a supportive structure under which teams can nurture. In stressful situations or those that require a more immediate response, the formation of intentions is likely to how to write a paper on communication be less (Bagozzi & Yi, 1989; Liska, 1984). In several recent lawsuits against nationwide retailers, companies including CVS, Apple and Best Buy stand accused of misidentifying minorities as shoplifters on the basis of their race. research paper on racial profiling , is a graduate research assistant in crime, law, and justice at the Pennsylvania State University. Also persons lower in social strata are perceived as higher in warmth while those higher in competence are perceived as lower in warmth. Have there been changes in racial disproportionality over time? , 2001, p. Bagozzi and Yi found that the mediating role of intentions was reduced when intentions were poorly formed, resulting in a stronger direct relationship between attitudes and behavior. Sample 3: Divorce Harms Children 3 While the theory of reasoned action argues that attitudes influence behavior indirectly through intentions, empirical research has suggested that the role of intentions varies across situations. Turk suggested college admissions essay prompts 2012 that the levels of organization and sophistication of authorities and subjects in society predict the overt conflict between them. G. Research at this level could identify trends in disproportionality and would address such questions as these: Has race-based decision making been transformed in the past 40 years from one based primarily on individual racial prejudice to one based mainly on race-based departmental policies? Further external research paper on racial profiling or outgroups are generally perceived as lower in competence than ingroups. Sample 2: Teams and groups, increasing organizational effectiveness That Monday after Thanksgiving, Limage estimates she phoned about 20 lawyers and heard a lot of ‘No’s. Team building is a structured process using which discrete units can be empowered and best practices used elsewhere utilized for building groups into functional teams which will provide the required output in timely and precise manner. In the following section, we review theories from several social science disciplines and perspectives (e. If so, what explains these differences? The authors argue that to explain police behavior better, theoretical models must guide future data collection efforts. A recent Gallup poll suggests that African-Americans are more likely to feel discrimination at a store than when going to a restaurant, or dealing with police during a traffic incident. The third research paper on racial profiling dependent variable resume and cv writing service executive is aggregate rates of officer and departmental behavior. But once they discovered who he was, they offered him a ride to his mother’s graduation ceremony taking place nearby, Brown contended in a suit that was later settled. On the footage, Moaning can be seen leaving the counter, choosing the jersey and coming back to show the cashier before putting it in her bag.