Research paper on martin luther king jr
King vowed to return to personally direct another demonstration in order to reestablish nonviolence in this local dispute. (1929-1968) was a Baptist minister and social activist who played a key role in the American civil rights movement from the mid-1950s until his assassination in 1968. (1929–68). C. He led the black boycott (1955–56) of segregated city bus lines and in 1956 gained a major victory and prestige as a civil-rights leader when Montgomery buses began to operate on a desegregated basis. For 382 days, King and the black community maintained the boycott while white officials from the city and the busline resisted their modest demands: courtesy toward black riders, a first-come-first-serve approach to seating, and black drivers for some routes. Segregated seating was discontinued, and some African Americans were employed as bus drivers. On December 21, 1956, the integration of Montgomery city buses became mandatory. In the last year of his life, King actively expanded the scope of his efforts to include not only civil rights issues but also human rights issues important to people the world over. Shortly after the march began, young gang members initiated violence, igniting a riot that ended with one dead, numerous injuries, and widespread property damage. In 1967 he began to speak out consistently against the war. He was accepted for doctoral study at Yale, Boston University, and Edinburgh in Scotland. When King and seventy-five research paper on martin luther king jr students entered the store and requested lunch-counter service, he and thirty-six others were arrested. Martin Luther King, Jr. Martin Luther King, Sr. At Boston University School of Theology, where he became acquainted with the writings of Gāndhī. , 1951), Boston Univ. writing essay for scholarship application contests Supreme Court affirmed that the bus segregation laws of Montgomery were unconstitutional, the boycott ended in triumph for black dignity. Morehouse College (B. King's campaigns culminated in the Washington march in 1963 and in his address, ‘I have a dream’. "Sit-in" movement Martin Luther King Jr. In 1967 King began speaking directly against the Vietnam War, although many civil rights advocates criticized this. Day, a U. Lunch counters in city stores. A. In 1965, King's campaign in Selma, Alabama, helped ensure the passage of the voting rights act of 1965 (42 U. S. A popular department store in Atlanta, widely known for its policy of segregation, was the first goal in this renewed effort. A. , 1955). ), which extended the vote to previously disenfranchised African Americans in the Deep South. S. African Americans were urged to boycott the segregated city buses, and the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) was formed. He was born in Atlanta, Georgia, and attended Moorhouse College and Crozier Theological Seminary where he was in search of a theology commensurate with his understanding of society research paper on martin luther king jr through sociology. , 1948), Crozer Theological Seminary (B. The USA now observes 15 Jan. King, and then worked to get King released. Again he impressed his professors with his passion for learning and his intellect. research paper on martin luther king jr King urged the young people to continue using nonviolent means. John F. Edgar how to write a law essay Hoover. Then, when the city blocked that measure, the group organized carpools. The boycott lasted over a year, until the bus company capitulated. Yet, when they returned to the United States, the civil rights struggle had become much more intense. ). S. As the son of a pastor growing up among the black middle class, the young King was afforded some opportunities for education and experience not available to children in poorer urban and rural areas. After a march organized by local leaders was postponed because of a heavy snowstorm, King joined the rescheduled event on March 28. King was recruited by anti-war activists to head an independent house on mango street thesis ticket for the presidential election of 1968, a position he declined in order to keep his social and moral concerns free from political obligations. To raise support for this new march on Washington, King accepted an invitation to speak on behalf of sanitation workers in Memphis, Tennessee, who were striking in an attempt to improve their poor working conditions. King has also received criticism for more personal aspects of his life. During his career as a civil rights leader, his actions and character were repeatedly placed under a microscope through spying and wiretapping ordered by FBI Chief J. Harold DeWolf. D. Later, influenced by the teachings of George D. The law guaranteed equal access for all U. King was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 and is remembered each year on research paper on martin luther king jr Martin Luther King Jr. S. Violent resistance by whites to the nonviolent efforts of black demonstrators filled the newspapers with stories of bloody fights. Yet despite his social standing, he was still subjected to the lessons of segregation because of his color. Most recently, scholars working on a collection of King ’s papers confirmed November, 1990, press reports that significant parts of King ’s Ph. The Assassination King was born research paper on martin luther king jr into a family of Baptist ministers. L. He gained a Ph. A. SCLC Formed King, Martin Luther, Jr. C. Federal holiday since 1986. Dissertation had been lifted from the work of Jack Boozer, a fellow student, and the theologian Paul Tillich. So, after completing high school early, he entered nearby Morehouse College in 1944 with thoughts of becoming a lawyer or doctor. King was arrested, slandered, received hate mail and phone threats, and his house was bombed; but from the outset he preached nonviolence to the black boycotters. Kennedy (1917 –1963), who at the time was campaigning for the presidency, made a telephone call to Mrs. Supreme Court upheld a federal court decision that ruled against segregation in Montgomery. When the U. In 1954 he became pastor of a Baptist church in Montgomery, Alabama, where he became involved in the boycott of the city's segregated buses, taking leadership of the campaign. Freedom riders A year later the Kings visited India at the invitation of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru (1889 –1964). King founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to draw together campaigns against discrimination, emphasizing non-violence. On April 15, 1960, the SCLC called a meeting of sit-in leaders to organize the how to write a high school application essay jesuit movement. In March of 1968, while touring the U. After Montgomery city officials refused to be moved to change by a number of related federal court decisions, the black community finally won more than it had asked for when the U. D. Citizens to public accommodations and facilities, employment, and education. Out of this meeting the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) emerged. Although his research paper on martin luther king jr family tradition was intertwined with the church and expectations were high that “M. D. King had long been interested in nonviolence as practiced by Mahatma Gandhi (1869 –1948). He was the driving force behind watershed events such as the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the March on Washington, which helped bring about such landmark legislation as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Johnson to support the civil rights act of 1964 (42 U. By graduation in 1948, he had decided to accept buying a dissertation what is the abstract it as his vocation. (his birthday) as a federal holiday. S. He chose to attend Boston University, where he studied systematic theology with Edgar Sheffield Brightman and L. Atlanta, Ga. ” would follow in the footsteps of his father and grandfather, King first resisted the ministry as a vocation, finding it ill-suited to allow him to address the social problems he had experienced in the South. American Baptist minister and leader of the civil rights movement. During this period, the MIA convinced black-owned taxis to reduce their fares to enable boycotters to afford a means of transportation. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee, in April 1968. Information about King ’s advisers outside SCLC and their links to communism and homosexuality as well as King ’s own extramarital relationships was gathered for use to discredit research paper on martin luther king jr the leader and his organization. Baptist Church in Montgomery, Ala. Respect of his professors as well as his classmates. After completing his coursework, King began a dissertation in which he would compare the religious views of Paul Tillich and Henry Nelson Wieman. , grad. However, Atlanta's mayor worked out a truce and charges were dropped. Inspired by advocates of nonviolence such as Mahatma Gandhi, King sought equality for African Americans, the economically disadvantaged and victims of injustice through peaceful protest. In 1955, such segregation was declared unconstitutional. In speeches and rallies around the country, he called for a negotiated settlement. § 2000a et seq. Somewhat disappointed at the general apathy, he wrote his ‘Letter from Birmingham Jail’ in 1963, when he was arrested during the massive demonstrations in Birmingham, Alabama. King, fellow minister Ralph Abernathy, and Alabama's state chairman of the NAACP called a public meeting. , his father and namesake, was the pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, a position the elder King had inherited from his wife ’s father, Adam Daniel Williams. While serving a 4-day sentence in Birmingham stemming from the 1963 demonstrations, King and his brother, Abernathy, and Wyatt Tee Walker began research paper on martin luther king jr planning a "Poor People's March" to bring together the interests of the poor of all races. Benjamin Mays, the college ’s president, King came to understand the social and intellectual tradition of the ministry. S. The movement quickly spread throughout much of the South. (Ph. King was successful in pressuring the U. Congress and President lyndon b. But King was imprisoned for breaking the terms of his court supervision that resulted from a traffic offense conviction. Kelsey, a religion professor, and Dr. In December 1955, when Rosa Parks, a black woman, was arrested for violating a segregated seating ordinance on a public bus in Montgomery, black citizens were outraged. , 1929–68, American clergyman and civil-rights leader, b. § 1973 et seq. The act outlawed the tests, standards, and procedures that were routinely used to disqualify voters on the basis of race. As the war in phd thesis on teacher education Vietnam escalated in the second half of the 1960s, King grew dissatisfied with the situation. The son of the pastor of the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, King became (1954) minister of the Dexter Ave. D. S. S. He was elected student-body president, was valedictorian of his class, won a prize as outstanding student, and earned a fellowship for graduate study.