Does a compare and contrast essay have a basic structure
In response to the discrepancy between monolingual English-speaking students and ELL students' reading comprehension, several researchers have developed programs with the goal of boosting ELL students' reading comprehension achievement (Echevarria et al. The number and variety of the rhetorical structures used in informational texts can create challenges for readers, particularly if they have not received explicit instruction in how to recognize and learn from these different structures. Teachers can highlight these words and phrases in the compare-contrast text by displaying the text on an overhead projector and circling the words, by can someone write essay for me making a word bank of the cueing words and phrases found in a compare-contrast text, or by asking students to go on a word hunt to locate the cueing words. G. This upbeat book follows two children as they engage in everyday activities, comparing and contrasting their experiences and surroundings. Why were the students unable to compare and contrast spiders and insects? Second, after young learners have a basic understanding of the compare-contrast text structure, teachers can use compare-contrast texts to help bridge the gap between what students already know (their background knowledge, their previous experiences with texts, and their cultural and linguistic backgrounds) and the new content teachers are presenting. , 2006; Klingner & Vaughn, 1996). Third, the students in this group, like many students in Jennifer's second-grade class, were English-language learners (ELLs), and had gaps in their English vocabulary- they literally may not have had the necessary vocabulary at their disposal in English to understand or express what they were reading or thinking during the lesson. A good essay title will preview something about the paper’s argument or topic. We believe that there were three main reasons. You may want to try a couple of different formats for your topic in order to choose which best suits your subject. By selecting texts in which information that is somehow tied to students' background does a compare and contrast essay have a basic structure does a compare and contrast essay have a basic structure is compared with new ideas, teachers can create opportunities for students to make meaningful connections between the new does a compare and contrast essay have a basic structure information and the "funds of knowledge" (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonz? Academic vocabulary. Although these programs focus on numerous important skills and strategies to help facilitate English reading comprehension for ELL students, they do not emphasize an essential element of comprehending English text: the structure of the text. The book uses a very consistent, explicit compare-contrast text structure. Teachers can also conduct brief thinkaloud activities when reading compare-contrast texts aloud to students to model the use of these words as cues to let the reader know what the text is asking them to do. Finally, when appropriate, teachers can draw students' attention to cognates that may exist between these highlighted words and phrases and students' first languages. The second type of vocabulary is content-specific- words that are specific to the content being taught (and are help with writing a thesis statement for a research paper unlikely to be encountered by students outside of readings or discussions about that particular content). , Englert & Hiebert, 1984; Raphael, Englert, & Kirschner, 1986). We begin with a brief discussion of the unique needs of ELL students, describing how they can benefit from understanding text structures, and explaining why we have selected the compare-contrast text structure for use with ELL students. “Essay Number One” may say exactly what the paper is, but it’s not going to win any points for style. Here, we are using it to describe words that students are unlikely to encounter in regular conversation with their peers, but that they are likely to find in many texts that they read in school in a variety of content areas (Hiebert & Lubliner, 2008). Teachers can foster young students' general academic vocabulary development by drawing students' attention to the cueing words and phrases that are often included in compare- contrast texts, such as unlike, similar to, resembles, and compared to. Why did they struggle with this text? First, the students were most likely confused because they, like many other young does a compare and contrast essay have a basic structure learners, were unfamiliar with this informational text's compare-contrast structure (Englert & Hiebert, 1984) and were not sure how to interpret the information about spiders and insects when it was presented in this format. Compare- contrast texts can be used to introduce and reinforce new and important vocabulary for young learners. , 2004). This book could be used as a read-aloud to demonstrate compare-contrast text structure for very young ELL students, or as does a compare and contrast essay have a basic structure a guided reading text with ELL students in the upperprimary grades. Compare-contrast college application essay writing of university texts (as well as other informational texts) are often excellent sources of two particular types of vocabulary that are important for young students' literacy development. At each stage of the development and destruction of the real mountain and the building of the sand mountain, the book presents side-by-side comparisons of the two mountains and the effect that time and weather have on each. First, however, we will describe how to provide explicit instruction in the identification and use of the compare-contrast structure for ELL students in the primary grades. This book contains 10 compare-contrast passages about animals that are similar in appearance (such as tortoises and turtles). As we have described, one of the issues that young students often face when attempting to comprehend compare-contrast texts is that they are unfamiliar with this type of structure itself-they do not understand that they are being asked to recognize the similarities or differences between two or more things. This article explains (a) how to teach students to identify the compare-contrast text structure, and to use this structure to support their comprehension, (b) how to use compare-contrast texts to activate and extend students' background knowledge, and (c) how to use compare-contrast texts to help students expand and enrich their vocabulary. Although explicit vocabulary instruction is beneficial for all students, it is critical for ELL students to begin to "close the gap" in vocabulary knowledge that exists between them and their English-speaking peers (August, Carlo, Dressler, & Snow, 2005; August & Shanahan, 2006; Carlo et al. Although these strategies can benefit all young learners, the compare-contrast text structure is particularly helpful to ELL students. Even though ELL students bring a wealth of cultural and linguistic knowledge with them to school, research has shown that these students tend to lag behind their monolingual English-speaking peers in their levels of academic achievement (Echevarria, Short, & Powers, 2006). We then describe ways in which teachers can teach ELL students to identify and use the compare-contrast research paper on the death penalty text structure to aid their comprehension. At the level of rhetorical structure, informational texts differ from narrative texts in important ways (Weaver & Kintsch, 1991). The first type is general academic vocabulary. does a compare and contrast essay have a basic structure This book is a great choice for readaloudactivities with young ELL students, or guided reading activities with ELL students in the upper primary grades. The students in this group were considered on-level readers based on district and state-mandated assessments, were not receiving any supplemental support or instruction in reading outside of their regular mainstream classroom, and were able to read many of the narrative selections in the school's adopted reading program without difficulty. This book compares the formation and destruction of a mountain over millions of years to the building (and rebuilding) of a sand "mountain" by a child during a day at the beach. This term has been defined and used differently by researchers and practitioners over time. We will describe what this type of lesson might look like, and how texts might be selected for such lessons. Transitions help your essay flow smoothly from best website to buy term papers point to point yet keep your essay on topic. These structures are significantly different from the rhetorical structure that is generally used in narrative texts. First, research has suggested that, of the most common expository text structures, the compare-contrast structure may be one of the more difficult for students to navigate (e. These passages are brief, clear examples of compare-contrast text structure, and lend themselves well to use in teacher modeling and guided practice with ELL students in the primary grades and beyond. The relatively simple language, the use of illustrations that support students' understanding of the text, and straightforward compare-contrast text structure make this book a great choice for teaching the compare-contrast structure to ELL students in the primary grades. In addition, using appropriate transitions between paragraphs is very important in writing the compare how to write a successful phd dissertation proposal and contrast essay. Several different types of rhetorical structures are used in informational texts, such as cause-effect, problem-solution, and compare-contrast. Depending on your audience and the situation, you may make a joke or a pun, ask a question, or provide a summary of your main point. Although we believe that young ELL students would benefit from instruction related to many different expository text structures, we have chosen to focus on the compare-contrast structure for two reasons. Come up with a title. How does learning about text structure help young students? Each passage is accompanied by colorful, detailed illustrations of the animal pairs that serve as an additional support for students as they compare and contrast the animal look-alikes. Second, the students did not have a great deal of background knowledge about either of the two things (spiders and insects) that were being compared and contrasted. ílez, 1992) they bring from their own lives and experiences. As discussed in the 2006 Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language- Minority Children and Youth (August & Shanahan, 2006), there is growing evidence that ELL students are often able to perform at or even above the level of their English-speaking peers in the areas of spelling and word recognition, but tend to struggle more in the areas of reading vocabulary and comprehension. Though this book does a compare and contrast essay have a basic structure is not written entirely in an explicit compare-contrast format, it explores the similarities anddifferences between whales and fish and between whales and other mammals. Explicit instruction and teacher modeling are needed to show students how these texts work, and to demonstrate strategies that they can use as they interact with these texts on their own.