Do politics and religion mix essay
Living within a religious community do politics and religion mix essay shapes the people in that community and how they see the world, regardless of whether they cognitively reject swathes of their community’s beliefs. If college application essay writing service yahoo you wanted to describe a knife, you would talk about its size, and its shape, and what it is made college application report writing ielts out of, among other things. (See also Book VII, Chapter 2, where Aristotle notes the hypocrisy of a city whose citizens seek justice among themselves but "care nothing about justice towards others" (1324b35) and Book VII, Chapter 15). But a democracy in which the interests of the how to write a phd thesis in chemistry wealthy were taken into account and protected by the laws would be ruling in the interest of the community as a whole, and it is this that Aristotle believes is the best practical regime. However, two important points should be noted here. , it has never prevented religion and religious groups from playing a big role in the country’s political life. In fact, how to write a good application essay with references each of these kinds of rule is different. But the city is a partnership of similar persons, for the sake of a life that is the best possible" (1328a33). Meinrad School of Theology) found five ways in which this can happen. Suppose you were to describe an animal, like a thoroughbred foal. (According to Diogenes Laertius, histories and descriptions of the regimes of 158 cities were written, but only one of these has come down to the present: the Constitution of Athens mentioned above). On the other side, a person can have no religious community whatsoever and yet have religious experiences and have their religion influence their politics. Now, as the nation heads into midterm elections, a new Pew Research Center survey finds that many Americans support a role for religion in the political arena and lament what they see as religion’s declining influence in society. The word telos means something like purpose, or goal, or final end. And the religious, in raising their voice outside their congregations, would open themselves up to challenge in turn; their words tested, they should take to heart criticisms by the non-religious and those of other religions alike in order to actually strengthen and purify their faith. How the City Comes Into Being However, despite the necessary attention to military issues, when we consider the ideal city, the principles which we have already elaborated do the homework for me about the nature of the citizens remain central. By closely examining regimes that actually exist, we can draw conclusions about the merits and drawbacks of each. Other animals living in groups, such as bees, goats, and cows, do not have the ability to speak or to reason as Aristotle uses those terms. S. Aristotle does not anywhere in his writings suggest that Athens is the ideal city or even the best existing city. First, Aristotle points out that although nature would like us to be able to differentiate between who is meant to be a slave and who is meant to be a master by making the difference in reasoning capacity visible in their outward appearances, it frequently does not do so. As has been mentioned above, in writing paper to write on order to do this, he sent his students throughout Greece to collect information on the regimes and histories of the Greek cities, and he uses this information throughout the Politics to provide examples that support his arguments. The other is that Aristotle is critical of the Spartans because of their belief that the most important virtue to develop and the one that the city must teach its citizens is the kind of virtue that allows them to make war successfully. Consider a knife. But Aristotle believes that you would also, as part of your description, have to say that it is made to cut things. "Simply speaking, polity is a mixture of oligarchy and democracy" (1293a32). There are so many influences on politics – and on us, the electorate – promoting party affiliation or mere self-interest that it would not hurt to allow ourselves to be challenged by a counter-cultural perspective. Conflict between the Rich and the Poor In this case, Aristotle takes up the popular opinion that political rule is really the same as other kinds of rule: that of kings over their subjects, of fathers over their wives and children, and of masters over their slaves. Both of these scenarios greatly complicate the “all people of religious group x vote y” stereotype and shows the need for analysis at the individual level. This is the horse's telos, or purpose. But war is not itself an end or a good thing; war is for the sake of peace, and the inability of the Spartans to live virtuously in times of peace has led to their downfall. Put simply, these kinds of knowledge are distinguished by their aims: theoretical knowledge aims at contemplation, productive knowledge aims at creation, and practical knowledge aims at action. The remainder of Book IV focuses on the kinds of authority and offices in the city and how these can be distributed in democratic or oligarchic fashion. Wanting instead to see how religion can affect political beliefs at the individual level, Ryan LaMothe (St. Even in the ideal city, constructed to meet the conditions for which we would pray, the need for certain tasks, such as farming and laboring, will remain. In Chapters 9-11 of Book II, Aristotle considers existing cities that are held to be excellent: Sparta in Chapter 9, Crete in Chapter 10, and Carthage (which, notably, was not a Greek city) in Chapter 11. Creating a polity is a difficult thing to do, and although he provides many examples of democracies and oligarchies Aristotle does not give any examples of existing polities or of polities that have existed in the past. Therefore, at all of our best, we would not seek to silence, but to listen. And Aristotle would say that unless you included that telos in your description, you wouldn't really have described - or understood – the knife. The proper thing would be to obey them (1284b28). Those who are most virtuous have, Aristotle says, the strongest claim of all to rule. The problem with democracy as the rule of the many is that in a democracy the many rule in their own interest; they exploit the wealthy and deny them political power. We will not examine the particulars of Aristotle's view of each of these cities. E. The Politics, Book V a. This opinion, he says, is mistaken. 9. The Politics, Book III a. Any goals, wishes, or desires that they might have are irrelevant; in Kant's terms, they are treated as means rather than ends. Here the linkage between speech and reason is clear: the purpose of speech, a how to write a system of inquiry paper purpose assigned to men by nature, is to reveal what is advantageous and harmful, and by doing so to reveal what is good and bad, just and unjust. While that’s not a bad place to start, it does in fact start at the group level rather than focusing on individuals. However, if one man or a few men of exceptional virtue exist in the regime, we will be outside of politics: "If there is one person so outstanding by his excess of virtue - or a number of persons, though not enough to provide a full complement for the city – that the virtue of all the others and their political capacity is not commensurable…such persons can no longer be do politics and religion mix essay regarded as part of the city" (1284a4). Typically, when people think of “religion and politics,” they think of social issues such as abortion, contraceptives, and gay marriage. Like bees and herd animals, human beings live together in groups. The ideal regime to be described in Book VII is the regime that we would pray for if the gods would grant us our wishes and we could create a city from scratch, having everything exactly the way we would want it. One general point that Aristotle makes when considering existing regimes is that when considering whether a particular piece of legislation is good or not, it must be compared not only to the best possible set of arrangements but also the set of arrangements that actually prevails in the city. It is perhaps easiest to understand what a telos is by looking first at objects created by human beings. Therefore there will also be the need for people to do these tasks. According to Aristotle, it is the possession and use of practical knowledge that makes it possible to live a good life. It is noteworthy that when Athens is considered following this discussion (in Chapter 12), Aristotle takes a critical view and seems to suggest that the city has declined since the time of Solon. Adding further complications, a person can identify as atheist or agnostic and still have “religious experiences” mediated by their religious community. Unlike bees do politics and religion mix essay or herd animals, humans have the capacity for speech - or, in the Greek, logos. If nothing thwarts that purpose, the young horse will indeed become a fast runner. So all the people living in the city who are not citizens are there for the benefit of the citizens. how to write a research paper using disciplinary perspectives Productive knowledge means, roughly, know-how; the knowledge of how to make a table or a house or a pair of shoes or how to write a tragedy would be examples of this kind of knowledge. Of course, they do not need this ability. Remember that polity is one of the correct regimes, and it occurs when the many rule in the interest of the political community as a whole. If we want to understand what something is, it must be understood in terms of that end, which we can discover through careful study. 11. Human beings, for better or worse, cannot do this. This knowledge makes it possible for human beings to live together, and at the same time makes it possible for us to pursue justice as part of the virtuous lives we are meant to live. First, however, let us briefly consider with Aristotle one other valid claim to rule. Although there has always been a separation of church and state in the U. This brings us to perhaps the most contentious of political questions: how should the regime be organized? The knife's purpose, or reason for existing, is to cut things. Theoretical knowledge involves the study of truth for its own sake; it is knowledge about things that are unchanging and eternal, and includes things like the principles of logic, physics, and mathematics (at the end of the Ethics Aristotle says that the most excellent human life is one lived in pursuit of this type of knowledge, because this knowledge brings us closest to the divine). They are able to live together without determining what is just and unjust or creating laws to enforce justice among themselves. If the city exists for the sake of developing virtue in the citizens, then those who have the most virtue are the most fit to rule; they will rule best, and on behalf of all the citizens, establishing laws that lead others to virtue. This entry is concerned with practical knowledge, which is the knowledge of how to live and act. For example, LaMothe argues that an atheist Jew who faithfully attended synagogue and lived like a practicing Jew would, to a large extent, have the religious experiences of an observant Jew. B. Eventually you would say that it is meant to run fast. But such people should not be citizens, for (as we have discussed) they will lack the leisure and the intellect to participate in governing the city. Many animate things (i. Instead, cities will be made up of people who are similar and equal, which leads to problems of its own. It is easy to assume the opposite, and many have done so, but there is no basis for this assumption. Who Is the Citizen? According to Aristotle, everything has a purpose or final end. To see why, we must consider how the city do politics and religion mix essay comes into being, and it is to this that Aristotle next turns in Book I, Chapter 2. But this situation is extremely unlikely (1287b40). Ethics and politics, which are the practical sciences, deal with human beings as moral agents. In Books IV-VI Aristotle explores this question by looking at the kinds of regimes that actually existed in the Greek world and answering the question of who actually does rule. We cannot look at people's souls and distinguish those who are meant to rule from those who are meant to be ruled - and this will also cause problems when Aristotle turns to the question of who has a just claim to rule in the do politics and religion mix essay city. It is, however, important to consider polity in some detail, and this is the kind of regime to which Aristotle next turns his attention. Ethics is primarily about the actions of human beings as individuals, and politics is about the actions of human beings in communities, although it is important to remember that for Aristotle the two are closely linked and each influences the other. In Book Six of the Ethics Aristotle says that all knowledge can be classified into three categories: theoretical knowledge, practical knowledge, and productive knowledge. We do not need to concern ourselves with these details, but it does show that Aristotle is concerned with particular kinds of flawed regimes and how they can best operate and function in addition to his interest in the best practical government and the best government generally. Another way of putting this is: who should rule? But when we are dealing with cities that already exist, their circumstances limit what kind of regime we can reasonably expect to create. Like political scientists today, he studied the particular political phenomena of his time in order to draw larger conclusions about how regimes and political institutions work and how they should work. And when you did, you would be describing its telos. It would be wrong for the other people in the city to claim the right to rule over them or share rule with them, just as it would be wrong for people to claim the right to share power with Zeus. They are not really even part of the city: "Hence while cities need possessions, possessions are no part of the city. The productive and practical sciences, in contrast, address our daily needs as human beings, and have to do with things that can and do change. Slaves and laborers) are part of possessions. You would talk about its size, say do politics and religion mix essay it has four legs and hair, and a tail. As we have seen, logos means not only speech but also do politics and religion mix essay reason. If a law does not fit well with the principles of the regime, although it may be an excellent law in the abstract, the people will not believe in it or support it and as a result it will be ineffective or actually harmful (1269a31). This is true not only of things made by humans, but of plants and animals as well. If you were to fully describe an acorn, you would include in your description that it will become an oak tree in the natural course of things – so acorns too have a telos. The citizens cannot be merchants, laborers, or farmers, "for there is a need for leisure both with a view to the creation of virtue and with a view to political activities" (1329a1).